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December 1970

January 1971

December Units - Consensus on Welfare
League Wins at the Polls (Dorothy Bremner)
School Committee Rates "A"
U.S. Congress Study Gets Underway
Honolulu League Needs You!
In the Campaign Finances Committee
Bouquet to... (Ann Hansen)
Air Pollution Glossary
In Your Own Home (You Supply the Scissors!)
Election Night Coverage (Betty Buck)
Susie Orient Says---
Welfare Consensus Questions

How is your E.Q.* these days? Be a wise Leaguer and add these words to your vocabulary.

Air Pollution Glossary

Please save and bring to Jan. units.

POLLUTION AND POLLUTANTS

AMBIENT AIR outdoor air; unconfined air

AIR POLLUTION - contamination of the air by waste products of man's activities. About 100 pollutants have been described. Others are formed by reactions between known pollutants. The five most common primary air pollutants are CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFUR DIOXIDE, HYDROCARBONS, OXIDES OF NITROGEN, PARTICULATES. (For more about the dangerous activities of the notonous 5, see Needed: Clean Air).

FOSSIL FUELS - coal, oil, kerosene, natural gas; so-called because they are the remains of ancient plant and animal life. Incomplete burning of these substances in autos, furnaces, factories, power plants is the major source of air pollution.

INVERSION - a layer of cool air trapped by a layer of warmer air above it. This becomes unpleasant and dangerous when pollutants are present in the lower layer.

LEAD - a particulate substance found in air chiefly as a result of auto emissions. Lead, in sufficient amounts, is implicated in anemia, liver and kidney damage, mental retardation in children, abnormalities in pregnancy and fertility. It is a cumulative poison.

OXIDANT - any of a number of substances which make oxygen available for chemical reactions in the air. Oxidant concentration is a measure of PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG. Well-known oxidants are OZONE and PAN.

OZONE - 03; a pungent, colorless, Toxic gas, a component of PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG. It irritates eyes, nose, .throat;. disturbs lung function; injures vegetation and textiles.

PAN - Peroxyacetyl nitrate. A. component of PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG, which effects eyes and lungs and injures plants in concentrations as low as 40 parts per billion.

PARTICULATES - solid or liquid particles in the air: dust, smoke, fume, fly ash, mist, spray. The smaller particles which remain suspended in the air and act like gases are, called aerosols.

PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG --the irritating haze resulting from the sun's effect on certain pollutants in the air, especially those from auto exhaust. In the photochemical process nitrogen dioxide is broken down by ultraviolet irradiation, and reacts with hydrocarbons to form OZONE, PAN, aldehydes and a host of other reactive compounds,, some of which cause eye irritation, plant damage, visibility reduction, respiratory difficulty, etc.

SINK - an area where pollutants are concentrated.

SYNERGISM - the cooperative action of separate substances, so 'that the total effect is greater than the effects of the substances acting independently.

CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION

AIR QUALITY CONTROL REGION - an area whose boundaries are defined by the Federal Government, which shares a common air pollution problem. 91 regions have been designated. Following designation of a region, states involved must set goals for air quality, and develop plans for implementing them; both are subject to approval by the Federal Government.

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA - factual report issued by the Federal Government giving levels of pollution and lengths of exposure at which adverse effects on health, vegetation, materials and visibility are detectable. Criteria for 5 major pollutants have been issued.

AIR QUALITY STANDARD - a limit on the amount of a specific pollutant which will be allowed in the ambient air. The established goal for a REGION.

CONTROL TECHNIQUES DOCUMENT - a report, issued with the CRITERIA for each pollutant, describing methods of controlling that pollutant.

EMISSION STANDARD - the maximum amount of a pollutant that is permitted to be discharged from a single source.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN - a blueprint of steps that will be taken to insure attainment of air quality standards within a specified time period.

ANTI-DEQRADATION CLAUSE - a provision in air quality standards to prevent deterioration of air in areas where pollution levels are below those allowed by the standards.

NAPCA - National Air Pollution Control Administration. Formerly under the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare. Now part of the Environmental Protection Agency.

* Ecology Quotient

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